Modern Bucharest History

The Popular Upreasing from 1821 represents the moment of the beginning of the Modern Period of the Bucharest City. At the beginning of 19th century, there can be distinguished a social-professional structure, as follows: craftsman, trade workers, civil servants (in the administrative field), clerks, landowners and sweenies. In accordance with the statistic data of the census from 1807, in Bucharest were a number of 3523 small shops and later, in 1820, there were recorded more than 200 public buildings, a large number of public squares and gardens.

In 1830 was initiated the People's Council (today the Local Public Administration) and, in this manner, the city was divided in five administrative areas (districts) and in 1846 was drew the first Urban Plan of the Bucharest City by the City Hall services.
By achievement of National Independence in the War of 1877, Bucharest became the Capital city of Romania and, by this moment, it knew a flourish economic and social development. In this context, the census from 1878 had mentioned the existence in the town of two cast iron foundries, two mechanical tools entreprises, 30 tanneries and 100 mills, from which a number of 12 was rallied by the power of steams energy.

In 1869 there was inaugurated the first railway on the route Bucharest - Giurgiu and in 1870 there brought into operation the railway between Bucharest - Ploie}ti - Gala]i - Roman.
The first build railway station was in Bucharest - called Filaret (1869) and then was built the railway station T$rgovi}te (1879) which after a time has been named Gara de Nord - North Railway Station. All long this period, Bucharest was also the most important commercial center of the country. The first institutions were established in the Capital city: The Chamber of Commerce and Industry (1858), the Bucharest Stocks Bourse (1881), the National Bank of Romania (1858). The end of the 19th century endows a development of the capitalist relationships and the settlement of a banking system by new banks appearance: Marmorosch Bank - Banca Marmorosch, General Bank of Romania - Banca Generala a Romāniei, Discount Bank - Banca de Scont, Romanian Bank - Banca Romāneasca.

In the same period there were also realised many works in order to rectify and to deepen the riverbeds of Dāmbovita river and also there were realised works destineed to supply the Capital city by drinking water after filtration operations of Dāmbovita water. In 1882 was inaugurated the public lighting system and in 1892 was built the Electric Power Plant - Filaret (1908) - it made possible in 1894 the inauguration of the first electric tramline in the city.

The period between the two World Wars was the most flourish period of Bucharest, and also for whole country. After the Proclamation of Bucharest as the Capital of the National Romanian State, Bucharest has maintained its first position as the main industrial, commercial and financial centre of Romania. The process of industrial development was intensified in this period and Bucharest accounting in 1938 about 17% of the total number of the entreprises with the most important contribution in the economy of the country, covering all the fields from industrial area, from that period.

At this period, the State sector was represented by the followings entreprises: Grivita Entreprise (Intreprinderea Grivita), Pyrotechnic Entreprise of the Army (Pirotehnica Armatei), Communal Factory of Milk Supplying of Bucharest city (Societatea Comunala de alimentare cu lapte a Bucurestiului), The Slaughterhouse - Abatorul, The S.T.B. Smithy (Atelierul S.T.B.) and The Glass Entreprises (Fabricile de Gheata).
In 1921 was brought into operation the Baneasa Airport (Aeroportul Baneasa) and in 1931 was founded The Society for Airline Transport named 'SARTA', which in 1933 changed its name in 'Romanian Airlines' - LARS (Liniile Aeriene Romāne) and they were in the State ownership. In 1933 was inaugurated the actual calling 'Palace of Telephones' (Palatul Telefoanelor), the first automatical telephone communication plant being into operation by 1927. There were founded new banks, like: Crissoveloni Bank (Banca Crissoveloni - 1920), Italian Commercial Bank (Banca Comerciala Italiana) and Romanian - French Bank (Banca Romāno - Franceza - 1921).

Following the Urban Plan adopted in February 1926, Bucharest city was divided upon administrative criteria, in a central area and in a peripherical area. The central area (by administrative point of view) has four districts, each of them having its own local council, the peripherical area representing the rest of the territory borders on edges of the fort. The communes which belong to this territory have received the statute of suburban communities. The general interests of the city and of the suburban communes were managed by the General Council, consisting of 36 elected counsellors, 24 nominated counsellors and down to 7 involved counsellors.
The administration leadership was ensured by the General Mayor, elected by the Council.

Between 1918 - 1940, the Bucharest city had ten General Mayors, some of them playing a very important role, such as: Emil Costinescu, Anibal Teodorescu, Dem I. Dobrescu, Alex. Donescu.
The involvement of Romania in the Second World War, in 1941, means for Bucharest city a very hard period, the bombings of Allied troops had provoqued damages to many buildings, one of them being of historical value, and other being the industrial objectives.





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